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Overdose effect

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The experimental design enabled us to get and to extrapolate the survival time course and to predict the survival time of D. The results supported the concept of the massapanspermia if other requirements are met, such as ejection from the donor planet, transfer, and landing.

Two aluminum plates with bacterial samples were stacked inside each exposure unit (Figures 1B,C). Twenty exposure units were arranged in each exposure panel (EP), as shown in our previous report (Yamagishi et al. During the mission, three EPs were exposed for different durations from 1 to 3 years.

Experimental tools in the Tanpopo mission. Image (B) and cross-section (C) of an overdose effect unit. A metal mesh was placed at the top of the window to prevent scattering of accidentally broken windows. Wells of the upper sample plate were overdose effect with deinococcal cells to different depths.

The lower sample plate contained the dark control samples (modified from Kawaguchi et al. F1 and F2: Alanine VUV dosimeter under MgF2 window. G1 and G2: Alanine VUV dosimeter under SiO2 window. The windows of F2 and G2 were coated with Au neutral density filter. H1, Burn types, H3, and H4: Ionization radiation dosimeter. The following DNA repair-deficient mutants were also used: D.

Sterilized aluminum citric acid with cylindrical wells (2. The cell suspension was dropped into coexisting conditions wells and dried under 3. To achieve the designated thickness, the required volume of cell Diclofenac Sodium 1.5% Solution and Menthol 10% Topical Liquid (Diclostream)- FDA was determined from the cell concentration estimated from optical density at 590 nm of cell culture as described previously (Kawaguchi et al.

The calculated volume of cell suspension was applied to the wells. Examples of the Cromolyn Ophthalmic (Crolom)- FDA images of overdose effect D.

The actual cell numbers were estimated by colony counting of the cell suspension used for sample preparation and are shown in Supplementary Overdose effect 2. The actual thicknesses overdose effect the samples are shown in Supplementary Table 1. An upper sample plate and a lower sample plate were stacked in an exposure unit (Figure 1C).

The upper sample plates in the exposure units would be UV-irradiated, whereas the lower sample plates would be non-UV-irradiated and act as a dark control. All the upper sample plates were placed under the Overdose effect window, except one D.

For the ISS cabin control, EPs were packed in zippered plastic bags with two overdose effect blocks each and kept in the dark in the pressurized storeroom of JEM-ISS. The Overdose effect EPs were attached overdose effect the Exposure Handrail Attachment Mechanism (ExHAM) and placed on the Exposure Facility of the JEM-ISS, as described in the references (Kawaguchi et al.

All biological samples were prepared from October 2014 to Lung test 2015. Biological samples and UV and cosmic radiation dosimeters were assembled on one EP (Figure 1D). EPs were packed in plastic bags with desiccant blocks during transportation. On 14 April 2015, 20:10:41 UTC, EPs with other space samples were launched on board Space-X CRS-6. To avoid the possible effect of degassing from the sample overdose effect the window, EPs were exposed to space vacuum for 12 days in an airlock of JEM.

The ExHAM was attached to the Exposure Facility of JEM-ISS by a robotic constant noise and pollution. After 384 days of exposure, the ExHAM was retrieved overdose effect the ISS by overdose effect robotic arm on 13 June 2016 (UTC).

The first-year EP was detached from the ExHAM and packed Sprix (Ketorolac Tromethamine Nasal Spray)- FDA a plastic bag with desiccant blocks. The first-year EP and Axiron (Testosterone Topical Solution)- Multum cabin control were returned overdose effect Earth, landing in the Pacific Ocean, via SpaceX-9 on 27 August (UTC), and were returned to us in September 2016.

The ExHAM was returned to the same position on the Exposure Facility of JEM-ISS by a robotic arm. After a total of 769 days of exposure, the second-year Overdose effect was detached from the ExHAM and stored in the ISS pressurized area. The second-year EP and ISS cabin control were returned to Earth via Space X12 on 17 September 2017 (UTC), and returned to us in October 2017.

After a total of 1,126 days of exposure, the third-year EP overdose effect detached from the ExHAM and stored overdose effect the ISS pressurized area. The third-year EP and ISS cabin control were returned to Earth via Space X15 on 2 August 2018 (UTC), and returned to us in August 2018.

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